Part 1: Prevalence, duration and risk factors for MDRO carriage in dogs, cats and contact persons
1. Assess the prevalence of MDRO colonization in dogs and cats at admission and discharge and the rate of MDRO acquisition during hospitalisation at two referral hospitals and 5 small animal practices in Switzerland.
2. Assess the prevalence and duration of MDRO colonization in owners of MDRO-positive animals and identify animal and human-related factors associated with MDRO carriage.
3. Trace possible transmission events of genotypically similar MDRO.
Part 2: Development of evidence-based IPC concepts
1. Assess current IPC standards and prevalence of MDRO carriage in veterinary personnel in small animal clinics and practices in Switzerland.
2. Identify in-hospital factors including duration of stay, treatment and types of medical interventions as well as critical contact areas and settings associated with MDRB acquisition.
3. Develop and disseminate evidence-based IPC concepts for veterinary practices and hospitals.
Part 3: Identification and characterization of antibiotic resistance mechanisms and genotyping of MDRO
1. Characterize antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and/or mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in third-3rd generation cephalosporin- and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, MRSA, MRSP and MRCoNS from humans and animals.
2. Determine clonality between strains of the same species.
3. Gain knowledge on the prevalence, antibiotic resistance and spread of Macrococcus spp. in small animals and contact persons.
4. Identify resistance mechanisms and mobile genetic elements in Macrococcus spp.